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旅游学刊 2014, Vol. 29 (3) :22 -30 doi:10.3969/j.issn.1002-5006.2014.03.003 <<-上一篇 下一篇 ->>
引用: 宋子千,以多学科研究的充分发展促进旅游学科成长[J].旅游学刊,2014,29(3):22-30
以多学科研究的充分发展促进旅游学科成长
宋子千
中国旅游研究院,北京 100005
Tourism as a Scientific Discipline: Evolving from Multidisciplinary Research
SONG Ziqian
China Tourism Academy, Beijing, 100005 China
全文:     原文
摘要:

文章重新思考了旅游研究史上曾经得到热议的“多学科介入”问题,其中包括对谢彦君和李拉扬一篇近作中部分观点的辨析。文章认为,旅游现象的复杂性并不是旅游研究跨越多学科介入阶段成长为独立学科的主要障碍;当前制约旅游学科成长特别是导致旅游研究在范式形成和理论贡献方面出现困境的主要因素不是多学科介入本身,而是多学科的表层切入;旅游研究对多学科介入阶段的超越要以多学科研究的充分发展为基础,跨学科研究和归核化的努力对于旅游理论的整合有其意义,但是并不能取代多学科研究的充分发展;就旅游研究的现实发展来说,要摆脱对相关学科理论的简单应用,一方面要深入了解相关学科理论,另一方面要加强对旅游产业实践特别是整合性、基础性、普遍性命题的深刻把握。

关键词旅游学 多学科 跨学科 理论体系
分类号: F59
Abstract:

:We reflect on the multidisciplinary nature of tourism studies to respond to the recent paper “The Logic Undergoing the Different Points of View Related to Tourism Discipline” by Professor Xie Yanjun and Dr. Li Layang, which was published in Tourism Tribune (2013, Vol. 28 Issue 1, p21).
Multidisciplinary tourism studies refer to multidisciplinary intervention when considering research objectives, research methods and theoretical tools. Tourism studies encompass a very complex network of disciplines and many researchers have investigated the multidisciplinary nature of tourism research. Xie and Li think that the multidisciplinary nature of tourism studies comes from complexity of tourism. However, we argue that it is only a reflection of an immature and developing tourism research discipline. Multidisciplinarity is an inevitable stage in the development of a new discipline and even mature well-established research fields evolve through multidisciplinary involvement.
It is known that discipline development does not proceed along a precise logical path. Therefore we cannot predict which tourism studies will develop into independent disciplines based on current research objects and methods. The development of tourism-related studies is very important at this stage and all options should be explored to ensure that an independent tourism discipline is achieved. The multidisciplinarity in current tourism studies should not be considered as an inherent feature of all tourism studies.
To date, the rapid growth in the number of tourism studies has not brought a corresponding increase in theoretical models and many researchers have already expressed concerns about the need for generating tourism theories. Xie and Li take multidisciplinarity as the main obstacle and propose more interdisciplinary research.
However, we think the current plight in producing tourism theories cannot simply be attributed to the multidisciplinary studies but lack of multidisciplinary studies in depth. Most tourism studies just apply mechanically the theories of other disciplines even specific conclusions of other studies and have no real theoretical outputs. Tourism studies, especially those involving policy and planning research, are multidisciplinary. Interdisciplinary research is based on research within two or more established disciplines and does not fully support discipline development. For the current stage of tourism study, interdisciplinary study is conducive to produce and accumulate the knowledge regarding tourism theory. However, interdisciplinary study should not hinder or substitute the full development of multidisciplinary studies; in fact interdisciplinary studies depend on multidisciplinary studies.
Xie and Li, and other scholars elaborate on the basic concepts and propositions in tourism studies. This “refocusing” effort is encouraged as it provides a deeper understanding of the current protocols and leads to new perspectives which can improve them. To date, these efforts have been privately funded and the results of these studies need time to gain the approval off academics. Xie and Li propose that “experience” is the starting point of tourism science; however, we state that the only logical starting point is “tourism”. Other concepts and a diverse research paradigm can evolve from this starting point.
Tourism studies have to be related to “real” situations. Adopting simple theoretical models to real data, which are often complex, does not always work and a deeper understanding of theoretical models and why they are suitable (or not) for different situations needs to be undertaken to improve the current models. Regarding the choice of studies, it is very important to focus on current tourism trends and studies should be designed so that the results can influence and modify current tourism industry practices. Tourism industry practices provide many good case studies for investigation. If these investigations are carried out simultaneously with valid scientific theoretical models, then tourism studies will bear fruitful theoretical results and this should form the basis of tourism science research. This multidisciplinary development is needed before tourism studies can be considered an independent discipline.  

Keywords: tourism multidisciplinarity interdisciplinary theoretical system
收稿日期:2013-10-19     
基金支持:

本研究受国家旅游局科研项目重点项目“基于产学研关联的旅游学科建设思想研究”资助(13TAAK006)

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